From committed bureaucracy to agile bureaucracy:
  • Meaning: It refers to shifting the focus and operational principles of an organization, typically a government or a large institution, from one characterized by rigidity and strict adherence to established rules and procedures to one that is more flexible, responsive, and adaptable.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Civil services reforms, good governance, probity in governance, participatory governance Etc.

 Mountain of uncertainties to Ocean of opportunities:

  • Meaning: It conveys a significant transformation or transition from a situation characterized by challenges, doubts, and obstacles (the "mountain of uncertainties") to one filled with numerous possibilities, potential for growth, and positive prospects (the "ocean of opportunities").
  • Usage: It can be used in questions in almost challenges like – pandemic (COVID), crisis like Russia-Ukraine war, protectionism in trade, challenges of large population Etc.

 Humane bridge between India and the world:

  • Meaning: It suggests the idea of fostering a connection or relationship between India and the global community that is characterized by empathy, compassion, and a commitment to shared values and well-being.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Migration of human resources to other countries, demographic dividend, India-UK relations, India’s soft power, Etc.

 Projecting India as a frontline nation:

  • Meaning: It suggests that India is being positioned or presented as a leading or prominent nation in a particular context or on a particular issue. It often implies that India is taking a proactive and influential role in addressing global or regional challenges, and its actions or stance are significant and influential.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – India as a world leader, India as a developed economy by 2047, India’s soft power Etc.


Step towards inclusivity/affirmative actions towards divyangjans:
  • The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 recognises the rights and needs of individuals with disabilities, which emphasises accessibility and the promotion of health for persons with disabilities. 
  • To provide the same right, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has recommended the inclusion of QR code on food products for accessibility by visually impaired individuals stating that this will ensure access to safe food for all including individuals with special needs such as visually impaired individuals.


Increased rate of extreme events in the world:
  • As per report of FAO titled 'The Impact of Disaster on Agriculture and Food Security’: The frequency of extreme disaster events has risen significantly over the past 50 years. The 1970s saw approximately 100 disaster events per year. In the last 20 years, that number went up to about 400, globally.
  • The year 2023 brought an end to the warmest decade on record, marked by unprecedented extreme weather events and large-scale disasters.


Prime Minister’s speech:
  • On India’s emergence: Bharat is emerging today as the world's largest and most trusted democracy.
  • Bharat is on the verge of a new destiny after 75 years of independence. However, it is also the time when Bharat must remain vigilant.   


NDMA guidelines on disaster mitigation in Himalayan region:
  • The NDMA’s national guidelines (2020) provide States with a technical overview of the hazard and risk-zonation and suggest strategies for monitoring, risk-reduction and mitigation.


Build Back Better World:
  • Definition: Build Back Better World (B3W) is an initiative undertaken by the G7 and launched in 2021, to provide an alternative to China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) for infrastructure development of low- and middle-income countries by 2035.


  • Definition: Regionalism is a political ideology that seeks to increase the political power, influence and self-determination of the people of one or more subnational regions. It focuses on the "development of a political or social system based on one or more" regions.


Quote on Practical Actions: It is better to be roughly right than precisely wrong”. – JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES
  • Meaning: The quote emphasizes the importance of practicality and pragmatism over theoretical or abstract correctness. It implies that in many real-world situations, it's more valuable to have a rough or approximate understanding or solution that is generally correct, even if it's not perfect or precise, rather than having a highly detailed or exact solution that is entirely incorrect.

 Quote on History: History is who we are and why we are the way we are” - DAVID McCullough

  • Meaning: The quote emphasizes the profound influence that historical events, decisions, and developments have on shaping the present and the identity of individuals, societies, and even entire nations.
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