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Directional shift for future goals/programmes:
  • Meaning: It refers to a significant change in the overall trajectory, strategy, or approach of an organization, project, or individual's aspirations. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to: economic reforms (labour laws, infra), Society (from subsidy and reservation to capacity building), S&T (digitization process, harness critical technology), govt. policies and programmes, direction shift in environmental measures and climate collaboration etc.
Harnessing ‘Sankalp kaal’ to make India’s ‘Amrit Kaal’: 
  • Meaning: Sankalp kaal: A period characterized by determination, intention, or strong resolve. Amrit Kaal: It is interpreted as a period associated with a state of positivity, nourishment, and prosperity.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions as – Utilization of demographic dividend, women empowerment, Atmanirbhar bharat, Make in India, Good governance etc.
BRICS stands for (B-Breaking barriers, R-Revitalising economies, I-Inspiring Innovation, C-Creating, opportunities, S-Shaping the future):
  • Meaning: This keyword simply gives a meaning of every word in BRICS i.e., making an acronym for the BRICS.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – International relations mainly BRICS related questions, India’s PM on BRICS, need of its expansion, etc.
Living bridge between nations: 
  • Meaning: It refers to the interconnectedness and continuous flow of ideas, traditions, and experiences between nations that enhance the mutual understanding and collaboration between nations.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to IR - to signify – role of soft policy (culture, Bollywood, sport, education and tourism), Role of technology collaboration, human resources, factors like (environment and climate change) etc.


India’s significant achievement in science and technology:
  • India has recently successfully launched its Chandrayaan lander on the moon’s south pole. 
  • With this, India has become the first country in the world to land on south pole and 4th to do soft landing on moon after USA, Russia and China.
  • This shows the country’s growing technological prowess especially in space sector. 
  • India will be able to collect data from the south pole which can be used as economical source.


Key Facts about Africa:
  • Africa is home to 30% of the global mineral reserves, 12% of the world’s oil and 8% of its natural gas
  • At present, Africa contributes less than 3% of the total share of global manufacturing and trade
  • 33 of the world’s 46 least developed countries lie in the continent, many of which are landlocked. 
Key Facts related to Social Security benefits:
  • Periodic Labor Force Survey Annual Report 2021-22: Around 53% of all of the salaried workforce does not have any social security benefits in India.
  • Just about 2% of the poorest 20% of India’s workforce has access to any benefits. 
  • Gig workers, a little over 1% of India’s active labor force, rarely have access to any social security benefit.
  • India’s social security system is also ranked poorly; Mercer CFS ranked it at 40 out of 43 countries in 2021.


Prime Minister’s Speech:
  • On Chandrayaan:  It is the moment of the clarion call of ‘Viksit Bharat’, a victory call for India, this is a moment of crossing the ocean of difficulties and walking on the ‘Chandrapath’ of victory. In the first light of ‘Amrit Kaal’ this is ‘Amrit Varsha’ of success”.
  • Our moon mission is also based on the human-centric approach. Therefore, this success belongs to all of humanity.
  • On Science and Technology: Science and technology are the basis of the bright future of the country.


Key recommendations of NCF on education: 
  • The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) finalised by the union Education Ministry has recommended for:
  • Class 10 and 12 board examinations to be held twice every year and students be allowed to retain the best score.
  • students will have to mandatorily study three languages till class 10, out of which two will be native Indian languages. Class 11 and 12 students will have to study two languages including a native Indian language.
  • Students will also have to study Environmental Education as an interdisciplinary area of study.
  • Students will also be given choice-based courses to enable flexibility and to remove hard separations between disciplines and academic areas.


Solar Flares:  
  • Definition: A solar flare is an intense localized eruption of electromagnetic radiation in the Sun's atmosphere. It happens when energy stored in 'twisted' magnetic fields (usually above sunspots) is suddenly released.
  • Solar flares are different to 'coronal mass ejections' (CMEs) which are huge bubbles of gas threaded with magnetic field lines that are ejected from the Sun over the course of several hours.
Fourth industrial revolution:
  • Definition: The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) is the current and developing environment in which disruptive technologies and trends such as the Internet of Things (IoT), robotics, virtual reality (VR) and artificial intelligence (AI) are changing the way modern people live and work. 
  • The integration of these technologies into manufacturing practices is known as Industry 4.0. 


Quote on Space Exploration: The moon is the first milestone on the road to the stars”. – ARTHUR C CLARKE
  • Meaning: In a broader sense, the quote speaks to the concept of setting achievable goals as a means to reach grander aspirations. 
  • The moon landing demonstrated the feasibility of space travel and ignited the imagination of scientists, engineers, and dreamers around the world, inspiring them to push the boundaries of what is possible in space exploration.
Quote on Challenges and Potential: “Where there is no struggle, there is no strength”. - Oprah Winfrey
  • Meaning: The quote reflects the idea that challenges, difficulties, and obstacles are essential for personal growth and the development of inner strength. It suggests that facing and overcoming adversity is what allows individuals to discover their true potential and resilience.
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