Asymmetric bargaining power:
  • Meaning: It refers to a situation in which two or more parties involved in a negotiation or transaction possess unequal levels of influence, control, or resources. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to: Society (casteism, patriarchal society and women subjugation, Divyangjans, LGBTQI+), Polity (Political empowerment of women, SCs, STs, OBCs), IR (South-South cooperation, island and least developed economy), etc.
Trustees of the people: 
  • Meaning: It is a concept rooted in political philosophy that refers to individuals or entities in positions of authority who are entrusted with making decisions and taking actions that serve the best interests of the people they represent.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions as – Executive, legislature, Judiciary, Civil Servants etc. are the “trustees of the people” and should work for their welfare.
Innovation should be transformational not incremental:
  • Meaning: It conveys the idea that the focus of innovation efforts should be on creating significant and profound changes rather than making small, gradual improvements. 
  • In other words, when seeking to innovate, the goal should be to bring about revolutionary and game-changing advancements rather than merely refining existing products, processes, or ideas.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Science and technology, R&D, Innovation and IPR, NEP 2020, Skilling and human resources etc.
India as a global innovation frontier: 
  • Meaning: It highlights India's capacity to drive forward significant advancements, novel ideas, and cutting-edge technologies that can have a transformative impact not only within the country but also on a broader international level.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Science and technology, R&D, Innovation and IPR, NEP 2020, Skilling and human resources Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology, Atmanirbhar Bharat etc.


Consumption of ultra-processed food and health impacts:
  • According to WHO-ICRIER report:
  • There has been a rapid rise in the sales of ultra-processed foods in India in the last 10 years. 
  • Even if consumption of these is low compared to homecooked foods, the upward trend needs to be curtailed with policy interventions to prevent an “obesity epidemic” in India, which is evident in the West.


Biotechnology sector in India:
  • India has a 3-5% market share in the global biotechnology industry and it ranks 12th in the world in biotech and 3rd in Asia-pacific.
  • India has the 3rd largest Startups ecosystem globally; and the largest vaccine manufacturer. 
  • In Innovation: India has been ranked 40th among the innovative economies as per Global Innovation Index, 2022.
Global gender gap in the world and India:
  • According to the Global gender gap report (By WEF):
  • At the current rate of progress, it would take 131 years to achieve full gender parity i.e., political, social and economic parity.
  • The overall rate of change had
    slowed down following the pandemic.
  • India has improved its ranking, rising from 135th (in 2022) to 127th out of 146 countries.
 India’s ageing workforce:
  • According to the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) report:
  • India’s workforce has rapidly aged over the past seven years. 
  • India’s youth (ages 15 and 29): Fallen from 25% in 2016-17 to just 17% at the end of 2022-23. 
  • The bracket of 30 to 44 years: Has also fallen from 38 % to 33% over the same period. 
  • The oldest cohort (45 years and above): It has grown from 37 % to 49%.


Vice President’s Speech:
  • On India’s Democracy: Our democracy is unique in the world, because Bharat has Constitutionally structured democracy at the village level, at the Panchayat level, at the zila parishad level, at the state level and at the central level.
  • Public representatives are supposed to be role models for the people.
  • The temples of democracy (Parliament) meant for dialogue, deliberation, debate and discussion.


Committee on Real sector in India: 
  • According to a 14-member committee of Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs:
  • Main reason for the stress in real estate sector: Lack of financial viability, which has led to delays and cost overruns. 
  • Suggestions: Improve the Internal Rate of Return of the projects in order to attract funding. Judicial interventions like the use of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code should be “the last resort”. Registration of the projects should be implemented as per RERA Act, 2016 to increase transparency.


Gender Gap :  
  • Definition: It is the disparities between genders in various aspects such as pay, employment, education, and political representation. 
  • According to the United Nations (UN), the gender gap refers to the unequal treatment and opportunities that exist between men and women in various fields, including economic participation and decision-making, education, and health. 
Glacial lake outburst:
  • Definition: A glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a type of outburst flood, an incident when the water levels of glacial lakes breach their boundaries, causing large amounts of water to flow into nearby streams and rivers. These also create flash floods. 


Quote on Human potential and Potential positive impacts: A small step for Man, a giant leap for mankind”. –Neil Armstrong
  • Meaning: The quote captures the profound idea that individual actions can have immense and transformative impacts on the collective human experience and the advancement of civilization. 
  • It captures the essence of human potential, the pursuit of knowledge, the courage to explore the unknown, and the indomitable spirit that propels us forward as a species.