Imposed consensus to evolved consensus:

  • Meaning: It signifies a move toward more inclusive, democratic, and respectful decision-making processes. 
  • It recognizes the importance of valuing individual voices and allowing for a dynamic exchange of ideas to foster a collective agreement that reflects the interests and concerns of a broader range of stakeholders.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – polity and governance (UCC, government policies, forest rights act, participatory and grassroot democracy etc.).
Bilateral ties have grown “from seabed to space”: 
  • Meaning: It suggests that the relationship or cooperation between two countries has expanded significantly and encompasses a wide range of areas, from the depths of the oceans ("seabed") to the outer reaches of space.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - bilateral relationship between India-France, India-USA, India-Israel, India- Russia etc.
Technology: Core driver of employment:
  • Meaning: It signifies the importance of adoption, improvement and skilling in the new emerging technologies for providing jobs to the youth and economic growth.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – new age technology and its impacts (AI, ML, 4th Industrial revolution), unemployment and skilling, jobless growth, India@5 trillion economy, sustainable development etc.
Heal in India, heal by India: 
  • Meaning: It emphasize India's contributions in the field of healthcare, either as a destination for medical services or as a provider of healing solutions and support to others. 
  • It conveys a sense of self-reliance and the idea that India has the potential to play a significant role in healing, both within its borders and on a global scale. 
  • Usage: It can be used questions related to - healthcare and health related services (India as a hub of medical tourism), role of Yoga ana Ayush, etc.

Step towards electrification of freight services:
  • Step taken: The collective efforts of manufacturing companies and logistics service providers with more than 7,500 zero emission trucks (ZET) demand signaled by diverse companies from Cement, Chemicals, Dairy & food industry etc. and service sector: represent significant milestones in India's vision to become a frontrunner in decarbonizing the road freight ecosystem.
  • e-FAST: India’s first electric freight platform, spearheaded by NITI Aayog, aims to galvanize the transition towards cleaner and greener freight transportation. 
Use of technology in agriculture:
  • Step taken: The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare new technological initiatives under the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana to empower farmers and streamlining the operations. 
  • YES-TECH: A technology-driven yield estimation system, for accurate yield assessments at the Gram Panchayat level.
  • WINDS Portal: A centralized platform that hosts, manages, and processes hyper-local weather data which enhances risk assessment and decision-making in crop insurance, agriculture advisories, and disaster mitigation, supporting the agricultural sector and rural economy.
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Rice export in the world: 
  • India is the world's leading rice exporter, accounting for more than 40% of the global rice trade.
  • India is also the 2nd-largest producer of rice after China.
Agriculture products exports from India:
  • As per UN COMTRADE statistics: India’s share in world foodgrain exports has increased significantly from around 3% in 2010 to more than 7% in 2022.
  • Top 5 exported products from India: Marine products>Rice (other than basmati)>Sugar>Rice-Basmati>Spices.
  • Top 5 importers of agricultural products from India: USA>China>Bangladesh>UAE>Vietnam.

Prime Minister’s speech: 
  • On Technology: In this era of the 4th Industrial Revolution, technology has become and will remain the core driver for employment.
  • Need of skilling: We all need to skill our workforce in the use of advanced technologies and processes. Skilling, re-skilling and up-skilling are the mantras for the future workforce. In India, our 'Skill India Mission' is a campaign to connect with this reality. 
  • Global pact on movement of workforce: A globally mobile workforce is going to be a reality in the future. It is now time to globalize the development and sharing of skills in the true sense. 
  • This requires new models of international cooperation and coordination, and migration and mobility partnerships. 
  • Sharing of statistics, information and data regarding these employers and workers could be a great way to begin. This will empower countries across the globe to formulate evidence-based policies for better skilling, workforce planning, and gainful employment.

SC on constitutionalism/prevention of authoritarianism: 
  • IR Coelho vs. State of Tamil Nadu (2007): The principle of constitutionalism is now a legal principle which requires control over the exercise of governmental power to ensure that it does not destroy the democratic principles upon which it is based. 
  • These democratic principles include the protection of fundamental rights. 
  • The principle of constitutionalism advocates a check and balance model of the separation of powers.
SC verdict on Internet Rights & Shutdown:
  • Anuradha Bhasin vs Union of India (2020): The Supreme Court of India ruled that an indefinite suspension of internet services would be illegal under Indian law and that orders for internet shutdown must satisfy the tests of necessity and proportionality. 
SC verdict on official language:
  • Kanhaiya Lal Sethia case (1997): The court noted that to include or not to include a particular language in the 8th Schedule is a policy matter of the Union.

Goldilocks zone:
  • Definition: The 'Goldilocks Zone,' or habitable zone, is the area around a star where it is not too hot and not too cold for liquid water to exist on the surface of surrounding planets. Ex: Our Earth is in the Sun’s Goldilocks zone. 
Constitutional democracy:
  • Definition: A constitutional democracy is a form of governance that utilizes a constitution to uphold the democratic rule of law.
  • Difference between a democracy and a constitutional democracy:
  • While democracy can only guarantee that the power is vested with the people (the majority), the constitutional democracy preserves the rights of the minority and protects certain inalienable rights protected by the constitution.

Quote on courage: “It’s not the size of the dog in the fight, it’s the size of the fight in the dog” - MARK TWAIN
  • Meaning: The quote conveys the idea that determination, courage, and spirit are more important factors in achieving success than mere physical size or strength.
  • In a literal sense, it suggests that a smaller or physically weaker individual can still be formidable and achieve great things if they possess a strong will and a fighting spirit. 
Quote on violence and State’s role: “A government is an institution that holds a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence”. - MAX WEBER
  • Meaning: The quote conveys the idea that a state is an entity that claims a legitimate monopoly on the use of physical force or violence within a specific territory. 
  • This means that the state is the only entity authorized to use force, and it should be the sole provider of law enforcement, military, and other security-related services.
  • This legitimization is crucial to distinguish state violence from violence carried out by non-state actors, which is often considered unlawful and illegitimate
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