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5T pillars of good governance: Teamwork, Technology, Timeline, Transparency and Transformation:
  • Meaning: These five pillars represent a framework often used to describe the key components of effective governance in various contexts, especially in the public sector. Each "T" stands for a fundamental aspect that contributes to good governance.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to: Good governance, Transparency, accountability and responsibility, Ethics and Probity in governance, Digitalization and digital India etc.
Ecosystem of excellence: 
  • Meaning: "Ecosystem of excellence" refers to a dynamic and interconnected environment in which various factors, elements, and stakeholders work together to consistently achieve and maintain a high standard of performance, innovation, and success.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions as – Create an ecosystem of excellence in - Health and Education, Technology and Digital platforms, good governance, climate justice, sustainable development and circular economy etc.
From Democratic Reversal to Democratic Consolidation:
  • Meaning: It refers to the process by which a country transitions from a period of democratic regression or backsliding to a more stable and consolidated democratic system.
  • Usage: Constitutionalism and democracy, Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States, Parliament and State Legislatures, Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary, Important Aspects of Governance, etc.
India as a ‘global guru’: 
  • Meaning: Being a 'global guru' implies that India's expertise and achievements in various fields such as health, education, innovation, technology, and more are widely acknowledged and respected by the international community.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to highlight – Globalization, Health, Education, Human Resources, Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology, Atmanirbhar Bharat, South-South cooperation etc.


Right to internet and steps taken to provide free internet services:
  • Kerala was the first State in the country to declare the right to Internet a basic right.
  • The Kerala High Court had earlier held that the right to have access to the internet is part of the fundamental right to education as well as the right to privacy under Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • Kerala Fibre Optic Network (KFON): It is   a project aimed at providing free internet access to 20 lakhs below the poverty line (BPL) families in the State and providing internet connection at a nominal rate to the public.


Tax to GDP Ratio in India:
  • At present: India’s tax-GDP ratio is 17.7% with state taxes contributing 6.7% and central taxes the remaining 11%. 
  • In the 1990s: Tax to GDP ratio was 14.3% with state taxes contributing 5.1% and the central taxes the remaining 9.2%.
  • World tax to GDP ratio: In 2019-20, the tax-GDP ratio averaged 20.8% for the world. 


Prime Minister’s Speech: 
  • On positive thinking: “When decisions are made with positive thinking, right intention, and full integrity, the whole environment gets filled with positivity”.
Vice President’s Speech:
  • On Health: “A healthy body is the vehicle of all our virtues”. Everything in life can be regained. However, the body stands as an exception, unreplaceable and priceless, which is why the role that healthcare providers play in society is irreplaceable. 
  • He also talked about the Sanskrit mantra on health, "सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः, सर्वे सन्तु निरामयः" – "May all be happy, may all be free from illness".


SC Judgment on Governor's discretion: 
  • Nabam Rebia Judgement (2016): The SC said that a Governor cannot employ his “discretion”, and should strictly abide by the “aid and advice” of the Cabinet to summon the Assembly for a floor test.
  • Article 163 of the Constitution does not give the Governor a “general discretionary power to act against or without the advice of his Council of Ministers”.
Justice Gita Mittal committee report on Victims of Manipur:
  • Identified core areas in which work needs to be done: Include rehabilitation against women victims of violence, comprehensive psychological assistance and mental health care, medical care and health, relief camps, and data reporting and monitoring.
  • Key Suggestions: Appointment of a nodal officer to take charge of the reconstruction of these documents.


Basic structure :  
  • Definition: It is a judicial principle that the Constitution has certain basic features that cannot be altered or destroyed by amendments by Parliament. It was introduced by a 13-judge Constitution Bench ruled in Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973).
  • Over the years, various facets of the basic structure doctrine have evolved, forming the basis for judicial review of Constitutional amendments.
Judicial Review:
  • Definition: Judicial review is a legal process in which the courts have the authority to review and assess the actions, decisions, and policies of executive or legislature to ensure that they are consistent with the law and the constitution. 
  • It is the process by which the court declares any law which goes against the constitution as null & void. 


Quote on Curiosity and Innovation: The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing”. – ALBERT EINSTEIN
  • Meaning: The quote highlights the importance of curiosity and questioning in the pursuit of knowledge, understanding, and progress. Curiosity is a fundamental human trait that drives us to explore, learn, and discover. 
  • It leads to new ideas, innovations, and advancements in various fields.
Quote on Consistency: “The secret of the future is hidden in your daily routine”. -  MIKE MURDOCK
  • Meaning: The quote suggests that the key to achieving success and reaching one's goals lies in the consistent and deliberate actions we take every day. It emphasizes the importance of our daily habits, routines, and choices in shaping our future outcomes.
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