From non-alignment to multi-alignment:
  • Meaning: It refers to a shift in a country's foreign policy approach and strategic alliances. These terms describe how a nation positions itself in the global arena and forms relationships with other countries.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - International relations – NAM, India’s evolving foreign policy, Multilateralism and gloabalisation, Pushing India’s role in global world order, North-South connect Etc.
Silent killers: 
  • Meaning: It is a term used to describe various factors, conditions, or diseases that pose serious threats to health and well-being but often do so without obvious or noticeable symptoms. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Non communicable diseases, hypertension/depression, hidden Hunger, pollution, climate change etc.
Epochal moment of change:
  • Meaning: It refers to a significant, transformative event or period in history that marks a distinct and profound shift in the way things are done, the prevailing ideologies, or the overall trajectory of a society, culture, or civilization.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – India’s space sector, India’s presidency of G20, Demographic dividend, Atmanirbhar Bharat and window of opportunity for India for becoming a developed nation by 2047. Etc.
Going beyond greenwishing and greenwashing: 
  • Meaning: It refers to adopting a more genuine and effective approach to environmental sustainability and responsibility, especially in the context of business practices, environmental policies and global efforts.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Environment – Paris agreement and NDCs, climate related funding mechanisms, climate change and pollution, Corporate governance, Etc.


Example of waste to art and sustainability:
  • Case: Malappuram district, Kerala.
  • Step taken: Keralites have set a remarkable example of turning waste into art and embracing sustainability principles. In line with Swachhata Pakhwadas 2023, an abandoned bus has been creatively transformed into a sustainable Mini Material Collection Facility. 


Key facts related to crude oil and ethanol blending:
  • Crude dependence:  India’s import dependence on crude oil and products stood at an all-time high of more than 85% in FY2023, and more than 25% of the country’s import bill was spent on it.
  • Ethanol blending programme (2003): India have achieved 10% ethanol blending in petrol in 2022. Plans are now afoot to increase the blending share to 20 per cent (E20) by FY25-26.
  • Petrol demand: Nearly 60% of our petrol demand comes from two-wheelers. A NITI Aayog report also indicated a growth in petrol demand by over 45 per cent by 2030, compared to 2021.
Overcrowding and understaff of prisons in India:
  • According to National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB), 2021: The occupancy capacity rate in India is more than 130%. The occupancy of women prisoners has also been increased.
  • Understaffed prisons: The prisons are understaffed by approximately 30% of the required strength.


Prime Minister’s speech:
  • On women’s reservation Bill: It will give a new energy to the women power of our country. It will come forward with leadership and contribute to nation-building with a new belief. It, in itself, will be a guarantee for our bright future.


Various recommendation for one nation, one election:
  • By Election Commission of India: It proposed synchronised elections in 1983. 
  • By Law Commission of India: Proposed more than two decades ago in 1999.
  • Parliamentary Standing Committee: It proposed twice in 2015 and 2018.
  • NITI Aayog: It also proposed One Nation, One Election in 2018. 


India’s cooling action plan:  
  • Definition: It is India’s comprehensive Cooling Action plan which provides an integrated vision towards cooling across sectors encompassing reduction of cooling demand, refrigerant transition, enhancing energy efficiency and better technology options by 2037-38 through forging synergies with on-going programmes/ schemes of the Government.
Sub-categorization of caste:
  • Definition: Sub-categorization of caste, also known as caste-based reservation or caste-based quotas, is a policy approach to further classify and categorize castes or social groups within the broader caste system like in OBCs. 
  • The goal of sub-categorization is to ensure more equitable distribution of government benefits, educational opportunities, and employment reservations.


Quote on Challenges/Hurdles: The path of least resistance is the path of the loser.”. –  HG WELLS
  • Meaning: The quote suggests that taking the easiest or least challenging route in life or in pursuing one's goals is not a path to success or achievement. 
  • It implies that those who avoid difficulty, challenges, or hard work are more likely to end up unsuccessful or unfulfilled.