output themes


From ‘ship to mouth economy’ to largest exporter:
  • Meaning: The term "ship to mouth economy" refers to an economic situation in which a country relies heavily on imports for its basic necessities, such as food, fuel, and other essential goods. India has transformed from this state to the one of largest exporter of ‘food’ in the world today.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to: Agriculture and Green revolution, food security and food exports, Global food and hunger crisis and India’s role etc.
Transition from ‘victimhood’ to ‘victory-hood’:
  • Meaning: It refers to a shift in mindset and behavior from a state of feeling like a victim, often characterized by helplessness, passivity, and a sense of being unfairly treated or oppressed, to a state of empowerment and triumph.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Casteism and impact on SCs, STs, Tribes etc., Women empowerment (women as victims to women towards victory-hood), LGBTQI+ Community, Divyangjans etc.
4C's - Conviction, Commitment, Coordination, and Collaboration:
  • Meaning: The keyword “4C's - Conviction, Commitment, Coordination, and Collaboration” signifies the principles that highlight key attributes and actions necessary for achieving goals, fostering success, and driving positive outcomes. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions as– 
  • 4C’s in technology, R&D and innovation,
  • 4C’s in skilling of youth, human resources
  • 4C’s for environment conservation and reducing impacts of climate change
  • 4C’s in disaster management, terrorism, migration and refugee problems, one health etc.
Putting local governance at the driving seat: 
  • Meaning: It signifies a shift in decision-making authority, empowerment, and responsibility towards local governments or authorities within a particular region or locality. 
  • This approach recognizes the importance of local communities and their ability to make informed decisions about matters that directly affect their lives, such as development projects, public services, and resource management.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to highlight – PRIs and local governance (urban cities, municipalities), localization of SDGs, participatory governance, inclusive growth, citizens role and empowerment etc.


  • Global cooperation for a comprehensive digital health ecosystem:
  • At G20 health summit: Countries have launched ‘Global Initiative on Digital Health (GIDH) – a WHO Managed Network.’
  • It is an integrative step that fosters equity in healthcare by converging efforts and best practices. It will consolidate the evidence and amplify recent and past gains in global digital health for health systems while strengthening mutual accountability to enhance the impact of future investments. 
  • GIDH will ultimately aim to:
  • ALIGN efforts to support the Global Strategy on Digital Health 2020–2025;
  • SUPPORT quality assured technical assistance to develop and strengthen standards-based and interoperable systems aligned to global best practices, norms and standards;
  • FACILITATE the deliberate use of quality assured digital transformation tools that enable governments to manage their digital health transformation journey.


Key Facts on Poverty and Foreign exchange:
  • Poverty reduction: In 1947, more than 80 % of people were in extreme poverty, which today hovers around and about 11% based on income criterion.
  • Foreign Exchange Reserves: It is around $600 billion, up from a meagre $ 1.4 billion in July 1991. 
Key Facts on Health and Women:
  • Health data: As per NFHS-5 (2019-21):
  • 32% of children were underweight, 
  • 35% stunted, and 
  • 19% wasted.  
  • Infant mortality: From 57 per 1,000 in 2005-06 to 35 per 1,000 in 2019-21.
  • Women education, labour force participation and nutrition of their children: 
  • Women’s participation rate in our labour force (age group 15-59 years): At about 30% (2021-22). 
  • As per NFHS-3 and NFHS-4 data: Women’s education beyond 12th grade is a key determinant of nutrition amongst children, as is access to better sanitation and more nutritious food.
Women empowerment and gender parity:
  • According to “The Paths to Equal” report of UN Women and UNDP:
  • Globally: Less than 1% of women and girls live in a country with high women’s empowerment and a small gender gap. 
  • India: The empowerment deficit according to the women empowerment (WEI) in India is 48%, and gender gap according to the global gender parity (GGPI) is 44%. 
  • India’s score in WEI is higher than the regional average of central and southern Asia where the empowerment deficit is 50%. 
  • However, the gender gap in India at 44% is slightly higher than the central and southern Asia regional gender gap of 42%.


Prime Minister’s Speech: 
  • On Technology: From ancient traditions to the latest technologies, India has something for everyone. Technology has connected us like never before. It holds the promise of inclusive and sustainable development for all.
  • India is an ideal testing lab for solutions. Technology has connected us like never before. It holds the promise of inclusive and sustainable development for all.
  • India's Digital Public Infrastructure offers scalable, secure and inclusive solutions for global challenges.


SC Judgment on Appointment of Judges: 
  • In Second Judges Case (1993): SC introduced the Collegium system, holding that “consultation” really meant “concurrence”. It devised a specific procedure called ‘Collegium System’ for the appointment and transfer of judges in the higher judiciary.
  • In third judges’ case (1998): The Court opined that the consultation process to be adopted by the Chief justice of India requires ‘consultation of plurality judges. 
  • The sole opinion of the chief justice of India does not constitute the consultation process. 
  • He should consult a collegium of four seniormost judges of the Supreme Court and even if two judges give an adverse opinion, he should not send the recommendation to the government.
SC Judgment on Governor’s office and President rule: 
  • Thiru K.N. Rajagopal versus M. Karunanidhi (1971): The Governor is not elected but he is appointed by the President under Article 155.
  • S.R. Bommai case (1989): The court said that a State as a “constitutional entity” must survive Article 356.


Localisation of SDGs:  
  • Definition: The integration of SDGs within sub-national level planning and the process of taking into account subnational contexts in the achievement of the 2030 Agenda, from the setting of goals and targets, to determining the means of implementation and using indicators to measure and monitor progress can be termed as “localization of SDGs”.
  • Definition: It is the international policy of a sovereign state according to which it does not align itself with any of the power blocs and at the same time actively participates in the world affairs to promote international peace, harmony and cooperation.


Quote on Foreign Policy: Foreign policy is a matter of costs and benefits, not theology”. – FAREED ZAKARIA
  • Meaning: Foreign policy decisions are typically grounded in a pragmatic assessment of costs and benefits rather than being guided by religious or ideological considerations. 
  • When crafting and implementing foreign policy, governments and policymakers analyze various factors such as national interests, economic considerations, security concerns, geopolitical dynamics, and the potential outcomes of different courses of action.