output themes


Expanding India’s security footprint:
  • Meaning: It refers to the efforts and strategies undertaken by India to enhance and strengthen its security presence, influence, and capabilities both within its own borders and in the broader regional or global context.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Polity – Internal security (Boundary + Defence including nuclear power + Naxalism and extremism), Food security, Energy security, Atmanirbharta Etc.
Cohesion in a fragmenting world:
  • Meaning: It refers to the concept of maintaining unity, cooperation, and solidarity in a world that is experiencing increasing divisions, fragmentation, and disintegration.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Conflicts like (Russia-Ukraine, Israel-Palestine), Protectionism and trade war, International conflicts like USA-China-Russia, Pandemic and restrictions Etc.
Economic and institutional poverty:
  • Meaning: It is a multifaceted concept that encompasses not only economic poverty, where individuals or communities lack the financial resources necessary to meet basic needs, but also institutional poverty, which pertains to the absence or weakness of essential institutions and systems that support economic development, governance, and social well-being.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Poverty and hunger, inequality (social, economic and political), inclusive and participatory governance, sustainable development Etc.
Lab to fab (bridging the gap between research and manufacturing):
  • Meaning: The represents the process of bridging the gap between research and manufacturing, particularly in the context of technology, product development, or innovation.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Make in India, Atmanirbhar Bharat, India as a developed economy by 2047, Industry 4.0, Skill and industry collaboration, Etc.


Religious reform and individual effort for women upliftment:
  • Personality: Bangaru Adigalar.
  • Step taken: In the diverse tapestry of godmen and godwomen in South India, he was not just the custodian of a significant religious movement, but also the torchbearer of a spiritual renaissance among the lower middle class Tamil population, especially women devotees. He facilitated a space for women devotees in the spiritual regime, equal to what Tamil men found in places like Sabarimala or Lord Muruga temple in Palani.


Key facts related to graphite:
  • China is the world’s top producer. More than 65% of global supplies of natural graphite are from China.
  • 90% of the world’s graphite is refined by China into material used in virtually all EV battery anodes.


Prime Minister’s speech:
  • On demographic dividend: Bharat is preparing its skilled professionals not only for itself but also for the world.
  • On labour: It is the duty of the society to enhance the reputation of labour, 'Shramev Jayate', our skilled manpower.


Supreme court (SC) observation on police reforms:
  • In Rajesh & Anr. vs The State of Madhya Pradesh (2023): The SC emphasised the need to devise ‘a consistent and dependable code of investigation’ so that the guilty do not walk free on technicalities.
  • The Malimath Committee: It had recommended that the investigation wing should be separate from that of the law and order wing.
  • The Law commission of India in its 239 report: It not only mentioned its own 154th report (which recommended separation of investigation from law-and-order duties), but also reiterated the directions of the top court given in Prakash Singh & Ors. vs Union of India and Ors. (2006).


Fast radio burst:
  • Definition: A fast radio burst, or FRB, is a pulse of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation. It lasts a small fraction of a second but outshines most other sources of radio waves in the universe. Radio waves have the longest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum.
Question Hour:
  • Definition: Mentioned in the “Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha”, it is a one hour time period of every Parliamentary sitting provided to Members of Parliament (MPs) to ask questions of ministers and hold them accountable for the functioning of their ministries.


Quote on Corruption: In a state where corruption abounds, laws must be very numerous”. – TACITUS

  • Meaning: The quote suggests that in a society or government characterized by widespread corruption, there is a need for an extensive and complex legal framework.
  • This is because the prevalence of corruption means that people in positions of power and authority are often engaged in illegal or unethical activities, and as a response, a multitude of laws and regulations are enacted to combat these corrupt practices and hold wrongdoers accountable.