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Parliament, the effective mouthpiece of the people:
  • Meaning: The keyword suggests that a parliamentary system of government is seen as an institution that represents and articulates the views, concerns, and interests of the general population.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to: Democracy and its features and its evolution, Parliament and its functioning/productivity, Representative and participative democracy, etc.
Making the year of positive change: 
  • Meaning: This keyword expresses the intention or aspiration (for individual, society, business or country) to turn a specific period into a time when significant and favorable transformations or improvements occur.
  • Usage: It can be used as – Making this year, decade, century of positive changes. Use it in – Make in India, Demographic dividend, India as a developed economy by 2047 etc.
Unless you doubt, your wisdom is in doubt:
  • Meaning: This suggests that having some level of skepticism or doubt is a healthy and necessary aspect of wisdom and knowledge. In other words, if a person is overly confident or unquestioning in their beliefs and knowledge, it may indicate a lack of true wisdom. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Ethics and Morality, Wisdom, Education and skill, Essay, etc.  An essay on the same keyword itself can be asked.
Mission of illuminating Bharat: 
  • Meaning: This refers to an initiative or effort aimed at bringing enlightenment, progress, and development to the Indian subcontinent. Illumination signifies the pursuit of knowledge, education, and socio-economic advancement for the people of India.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - India as a frontier state in the world order, India as a voice of global south, India @ developed economy by 2047, Make in India, etc.


Rainfall deficiency and impact of climate change:
  • Case: Rainfall in August 2023 has been the lowest in over a century in India and hence hottest month.
  • Causes: El Nino and unfavorable conditions in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, Negative Indian Ocean Dipole, Factors of climate change etc.


Impact of pollution of human health and life:
  • According to Lancet report (2022): India lost more than 1.5 million people in 2019 to diseases caused by inhaling hazardous amounts of PM 2.5.
  • Air Quality Life Index (AQLI) prepared by the University of Chicago: Pollution by fine particles (PM 2.5) reduces the average Indian’s life expectancy by more than 5 years to 12 years in NCR region.
Persons with disabilities in India:
  • They constitute approximately 2.21% of the country’s population as per the 2011 Census.
  • Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act,2016 (RPWD) identifies 21 types of disabilities among people.


President’s Speech (Smt Droupadi Murmu):
  • On Failure and Success: Competition is a positive thing that improves life. Victory and defeat are part of life.
  • On wisdom: By awakening inner-self, one can increase one's own capabilities. With positive thinking and actions, not only our own lives but also the lives of people around us can be improved.


NITI Aayog on persons with disability: 
  • In its ‘Strategy for New India@75’ document: It has recognized the challenges posed due to a lack of detailed data in drafting policies for persons with disabilities (PWD). It has suggested for a comprehensive data collection and its analysis for a comprehensive policy on PWD.
  • India is a signatory of the United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and ratified this convention in 2007.


  • Definition: Wisdom is a mental capacity of combining intelligence with moral virtue in the process of gaining knowledge and acting. Wisdom goes beyond mere knowledge or intelligence; it involves a deep understanding of human nature, ethics, and the consequences of one's actions.
  • Definition: Orientalism refers to a Western perspective, which often carries a sense of Eurocentrism, where Western culture and values are portrayed as superior or normative, while non-Western cultures are depicted as exotic, mysterious, or inferior. It relies on various energy sources, such as oil, natural gas, coal, and renewables, and faces challenges from aging, reliability, climate change, and innovation.
  • Occidentalism: It involves non-Western societies or cultures, often in reaction to Western influence, representing and interpreting Western cultures and societies (the "Occident") in a way that can be reductionist, critical, or even hostile.


Quote on Nature and Earth: Nature provides a free lunch, but only if we control our appetites”. –  WILLIAM RUCKELSHAUS
  • Meaning: The quote conveys a message about the relationship between human consumption and the environment. 
  • It suggests that the Earth's natural resources can sustain us and provide for our needs, but this abundance is contingent on our responsible and sustainable use of those resources.
Quote on Wisdom and Examined Life: “An unexamined life is not worth living”. - Socrates
  • Meaning: The quote reflects a fundamental idea in philosophy and personal introspection, emphasizing the importance of self-reflection and critical examination of one's beliefs, actions, and values. It invites individuals to continuously question, explore, and deepen their understanding of themselves and the world around them, with the aim of living a more purposeful and morally conscious life.
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