output themes


Creating nano-entrepreneurs:
  • Meaning: It refers to a concept aimed at fostering entrepreneurship at a very small or "nano" scale. 
  • It is about encouraging and supporting individuals, often at the grassroots level, to become entrepreneurs, start their own businesses, or engage in entrepreneurial activities, even if those activities are on a very modest scale.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Make in India, Startup India, MSMEs and unorganised sector, Startups and entrepreneurship, Employment and unemployment, Etc.
From citizens as spectators to citizens as participants: 
  • Meaning: It underscores a shift in the role of individuals in society and governance. It reflects a transition from passive observation and disengagement to active involvement and participation in civic and political processes. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Participatory and grass-root democracy, PRIs (73rd and 74th AA), Inclusive and sustainable growth, Good governance, RTI and citizens charter, Democratic and constitutional values, Etc.
From importer and consumer to exporter and contributor:
  • Meaning: It represents a move towards a more active and productive role in the global economy, with a focus on creating and exporting value-added products and services, rather than primarily consuming and importing goods and services from other countries.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – India’s growing prowess in world order, Manufacturing and India’s exports, Make in India and Atmanirbhar Bharat, Technological development in India, India as a developed economy by 2047, Etc.
Top-down elite to bottom spread participative democracy: 
  • Meaning: It highlights a transformation in the structure and nature of governance and political participation within a society. 
  • It reflects a shift from a system characterized by top-down control and decision-making by an elite few to one where political power is more evenly distributed, and citizens actively engage in decision-making processes.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Participatory and grass-root democracy, PRIs (73rd and 74th AA), Gov. policies formulation and implementation, Inclusive and sustainable growth, Good governance, RTI and citizens charter, Etc.


Outreach programme for awareness of legal rights to children:
  • Case: Delhi commission for protection of child rights (DCOCR).
  • Initiative: Mera Kanoon Mera Dost.
  • Step taken: DCPCR in collaboration with an NGO (Sambhavana), has launched it to educate students, especially girls, about major laws, such as Child marriage Act, in order to create awareness.
Example set for government schools in India:
  • Case: Fazilka, Punjab.
  • Step taken: Punjab started a free transport service in two government primary schools on pilot basis in 2021-22. With a mobile app called ‘Class On’, one can track the bus route. It offers way better facilities than private one. It set a clear picture of how free travel can incentivise parents to opt for government schools over substandard private ones.


Women in Lok Sabha (From 1947 to 2023):
  • From 1st Lok Sabha to 17th Lok Sabha: The women representation has increased from 4.5% to more than 14% at present.
  • Compared with other countries: USA (28.7%), UK (34.5%), Australia (38%), Brazil (17.5%).
Impact of generative AI on labour market:
  • According to the World Economic Forum (WEF) report: About 23% of the global jobs will change in the next 5 years due to industry transformation.


Vice President's speech:
  • On G20 summit: India’s presidency of G20 had elevated the nation’s stature on the global stage. The New Delhi declaration is thus a recognition of India as a voice of peace and moderation in a world ridden with divisions.
  • The focus of G20 has shifted from a mere economic centric to a much broader human-centric approach.


Joint committee recommendations on women reservation in Parliament:
  • The Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill, 1996 was first introduced in the Lok Sabha for women reservation which was referred to a joint committee headed by Geeta Mukherjee. It recommended for:
  • The Bill’s wording of “not less than one third” with regard to reservation for women was vague and liable to be interpreted differently.
  • There should be reservation of seats for women in the Rajya Sabha and the Legislative Councils.
  • The reservation of seats for women in the Lok Sabha and the state Assemblies should be for a period of 15 years from the date of commencement of the Act.


World Heritage Sites:  
  • Definition: According to UNESCO, world Heritage is the designation for places on Earth that are of outstanding universal value to humanity and as such, have been inscribed on the World Heritage List to be protected for future generations to appreciate and enjoy.
India-Middle East Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC):
  • Definition: The India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC) proposed during G20, 2023, is a planned economic corridor that aims to bolster economic development by fostering connectivity and economic integration between Asia, the Persian Gulf and Europe.


Quote on Education: Education must not simply teach work; it must teach Life”. –  W E B DU BOIS
  • Meaning: The quote suggests that the purpose of education goes beyond preparing individuals for a career and should also include broader life skills, values, and personal development.