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Invisible women of science:
  • Meaning: It refers to the often overlooked and underrepresented contributions of women in the field of science. 
  • It highlights the historical and ongoing challenges that women in science have faced, including gender bias, discrimination, and systemic barriers, which have led to their accomplishments being less recognized or acknowledged compared to their male counterparts.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Women Empowerment, Women in STEM, NEP 2020, Inclusive and sustainable development Etc.
Training, technology, and tools (3Ts) for unorganised sector: 
  • Meaning: It refers to a comprehensive approach aimed at improving the livelihoods, productivity, and working conditions of workers and entrepreneurs in the informal or unorganized sector of the economy.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – education, skills development, and capacity-building, technologies like machine learning, 4th Industrial revolution, Unorganised sector, MSMEs, Make in India etc.
Addressing ‘age tax’ on demographic dividend:
  • Meaning: It refers to the economic burden or challenges that can arise when a large portion of a country's population faces problems like non-communicable diseases (NCDs), lack of skill, problem of drug addiction etc. and the lost opportunities because of this. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Issue of NCDs and Health issues, Demographic dividend, Transition of youthful median age to older age, Challenges of lack of skill, drug addiction Etc.
Eliminate ideological baggage of the past: 
  • Meaning: It refers to the process of shedding or discarding outdated, rigid, or dogmatic ideological beliefs, principles, or biases that have been carried forward from previous generations or historical periods. 
  • It involves a call for individuals, societies, or institutions to reevaluate and let go of ideologies that may no longer be relevant, practical, or conducive to addressing current challenges or fostering progress.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Colonialism and Colonial hangover, Civil services reforms, Caste and communalism, Women subjugation, Beliefs like – we vs them, developing vs developed or Global south vs global north Etc. 


Example of reclaiming wasteland and afforestation:
  • Case: Promoting large scale plantation on decoaled land, overburden dumps and non-coal bearing land. 
  • Step taken: Coal companies in India are undertaking mission mode efforts for bio-reclamation of available land. It has promoted such plantation to be counted for requirement of “compensatory afforestation”. It will help in environmentally sustainable measures to ensure just transition in the coal producing areas.
Example of inclusivity towards transgenders:
  • Case: Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi. 
  • Step taken: It has inaugurated India’s first dedicated OPD for Transgenders. The initiative is started with understanding of the difficulties encountered by transgender community to access healthcare services, largely due to discomfort and the fear of discrimination and social apathy.


Key facts related to healthcare in India:
  • From 1983 to 2023:  Infant mortality has improved by four times; maternal mortality has improved by seven times and the average life expectancy of an Indian is up nearly 30% from 55 years to over 70 now.
  • India’s non-communicable diseases (NCD) burden will be nearly $4 trillion by 2030. 


Prime Minister’s speech:
  • On On Vishwakarmas (artisans, blacksmits, etc.): Just as our spine plays a crucial role in our body, similarly, these Vishwakarma companions have a very significant role to play in our societal life. 
  • The commitment to 'local for vocal' is the responsibility of all of us, the entire country. To achieve this, we need to first make local vocal and then globalize the local.


Recommendations on reforming working of Parliament:
  • Parliamentary pay panel report: Formed in 2019 under the chairmanship of MP Murli Manohar Joshi: The quality of research work has gone down, the more well informed the Members are, the more fruitful will be the discussions in the House and its Committees. It recommended hiring domain experts to support the work of parliamentary committees.
  • The National Commission to Review the Functioning of the Constitution: It recommended the setting up of a Committee on National Economy supported with adequate resources.


  • Definition: Afforestation is the process of introducing trees and tree seedlings to an area that has previously not been forested. Afforestation can be done through tree planting and seeding, naturally or artificially.
  • Reforestation: It is considered as a form of afforestation in which the restoration of an area that has been deforested are done.
Red Tapism:
  • Definition: Red tapism is a term used to describe excessive bureaucracy, administrative hurdles, and a slow, inefficient, or cumbersome decision-making process within government or large organizations. 
  • It includes need of unnecessary paperwork, obtaining licenses, having multiple approvals etc. that make conducting one’s affairs slower, more difficult.


Quote on Women in Politics: When a woman enters politics, it changes her. When many women do, it is politics that changes”. –  F.G. MIRANDA
  • Meaning: The quote underscores the dual impact of women's participation in politics: it can lead to personal growth and change for individual women, while also bringing about broader systemic changes within the political realm. 
  • This reflects the idea that diversity in political representation is essential for a more inclusive and effective democratic process, as it ensures that a wider range of voices and experiences are considered in shaping public policies and decision-making.
Quote on Political participation of People: “Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter.” - MARTIN LUTHER KING JR
  • Meaning: The quote serves as a reminder of the importance of civic engagement, activism, and social responsibility. 
  • It encourages individuals to find their voices and use them to address the issues and injustices they care about, believing that such actions are essential for personal fulfillment and societal progress.
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