From the unvoiced and unheard to reaching the last mile:
  • Meaning: It signifies a journey or transformation from a state where marginalized or neglected voices and issues are not acknowledged or addressed to a situation where efforts are made to ensure that even the most remote, marginalized, or underserved individuals or communities are reached and their needs are met.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Poverty and hunger, Effectiveness of Gov. policies and schemes, Good governance, Participatory democracy, PRIs (73rd and 74th AA), Sustainable development.
AIR (Agile, robust & integrated) response systems:
  • Meaning: It refers to a set of principles and characteristics that are desirable in systems designed to address various challenges or crises, such as disaster response, emergency management, or rapidly changing situations.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Disaster and disaster management, Early warning systems, Health and pandemic issues, Internal security and defence forces, climate change and environmental degradation Etc.
Principles of decentralisation and devolution:
  • Meaning: It refer to fundamental guidelines or concepts that underlie the distribution of power, authority, and decision-making from a central or higher level of government or organization to lower, more local levels.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - PRIs (73rd and 74th AA), Grass-root and local democracy (Bottom-up approach), Citizen participation and direct democracy, From global to local view,

From narrative of dissonance and dissent to narrative of harmony and consensus:

  • Meaning: Narrative of Dissonance and Dissent: This narrative portrays a scenario where there is disagreement, conflict, discord, or disunity among individuals, groups, or within a society.
  • Narrative of Harmony and Consensus: It depicts a situation where there is a sense of agreement, cooperation, unity, and mutual understanding among the involved parties.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Political reform and inter-party democracy, Increasing parliamentary effectiveness, international cooperation in open trade, fighting climate change and global warming Etc.


Case study for preventing landslide in India:
  • Case:
  • Suggestion: The Kerala Forest Department is planning to plant bamboo and bamboo creeper along the Gap Road stretch of the Kochi-Dhanushkodi National Highway in Munnar to prevent repeated landslips.


India’s dependency on import for cooking oil: According to the Agriculture ministry:
  • India imports around 25 mt of edible oil, nearly 60% of its total annual domestic consumption.
Key facts related to urban areas of India: As per Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs:
  • There has been a six-fold increase in the Finance Commission grants to Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) from the 13th Finance Commission to the 15th Finance Commission.
  • Swachh Bharat Mission – Urban, has brought about a pan-India behavioural shift towards Swachhata. Solid waste processing has gone up from 17% in 2014 to 76% today
  • At present we have the fifth-largest metro network in the world.


Prime Minister’s speech:
  • On India’s development: India is one of the few countries which has such a combination of Development, Demography, Democracy and Demand (4Ds).
  • At a time when India is moving towards the goal of becoming a developed India by 2047, this is a golden opportunity for you.


Supreme court (SC) judgement on same-sex marriage: In Supriyo v. Union of India case (2023): SC has observed that:
  • There is no fundamental right to marry under the Constitution and legalization of same-sex marriage is a matter for the Parliament to decide, not the courts.
  • it is not possible to tweak the Special Marriage Act, 1954 by using gender neutral language to allow same-sex marriage.
  • A high-level Cabinet committee will look into rights that can be conferred on non-heterosexual couples.


Judicial Restraint:
  • Definition: Judicial restraint is a concept that encourages the judiciary to limit the exercise of their judicial powers. It recommends favoring the status quo in judicial activities and is the opposite of judicial activism.
Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC):
  • Definition: Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) is the electronic version of the nation’s official currency and is issued by respective country's central bank. In India, the RBI (Reserve Bank of India) issues this legal tender, also known as the digital rupee.


Quote on Regulation and Innovation: Regulation needs to catch up with innovation”. – HENRY PAULSON
  • Meaning: The quote conveys the idea that in a rapidly evolving technological and social landscape, the rules and regulations governing various industries, practices, or technologies have not kept pace with the speed of innovation.
  • It emphasizes the need for regulators and policymakers to be agile and responsive, ensuring that the rules that govern society and industry evolve to accommodate and address the ongoing changes brought about by innovation.
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