output themes

From none of the above (NOTA) to Many of the above (MOTA):

  • Meaning: None of the above (NOTA) is commonly used in voting systems to allow individuals to express their dissatisfaction with the listed candidates or choices.
  • Many of the above (MOTA) represents a situation where there are multiple suitable options or choices available. It implies that a range of possibilities are viable and can be chosen from, suggesting a more positive and inclusive scenario.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Electoral reforms, political and election system, democratic system, participative democracy etc.

4L framework- Land, labour, Liquidity & Laws: 
  • Meaning: The 4L framework (Land, labour, Liquidity & Laws) refers to the key factors that play significant roles in various aspects of economic and social systems and its reform. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to Economic reforms: Labour reforms, government policies and laws, India@5trillion, atmanirbhar bharat, etc.

Building urban commons:
  • Meaning: It refers to the collective process of creating and managing shared resources, spaces, and services in urban areas for the benefit and participation of the local community. 
  • Urban commons are assets that are collectively owned, managed, and governed by the people who use and contribute to them.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Urbanization (Water commons, green commons, land commons), sustainable cities, disaster management, heritage conservation etc.

From basket case to Beacon of Hope: 
  • Meaning: It represents a transformative journey from a state of severe economic, social, or political distress to becoming a symbol of optimism, progress, and inspiration. This keyword suggests a significant positive turnaround and the ability to overcome challenges. 
  • Usage: It can be used in India's transition from state of despair to opportunities- Importer to exporter, FDI investment opportunities, market and growth opportunities, space sector- commercial launches, vaccines etc.

Example of waste to wealth creation:
  • Step taken: Use of steel slag in road construction. Slag is made up of impurities melted out of the ore during the steel-making process in most of the Steel Plants.
  • Surat in Gujarat became the first city in the country to get a processed steel slag (industrial waste) road built as part of a joint-venture project by the CSIR, Union Ministry of steel and others.
  • The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) also used steel slag to construct a road at Arunachal Pradesh along the India-China border area. 
  • Significan

National Multidimensional Poverty Index: A Progress of Review 2023: By NITI Aayog:
  • India witnessed more than 13crore people moving out of multidimensional poverty between 2015-16 and 2019-21.
  • The rural areas witnessed the fastest decline in poverty from about 32% to 19%. 
  • During the same period, the urban areas saw a reduction in poverty from about 8% to 5%.
  • Uttar Pradesh registered the largest decline in a number of poor escaping multidimensional poverty.
Export preparedness Index (EPI) Report, 2022:
  • Released by: NITI Aayog.
  • Objective: The index undertakes a comprehensive analysis of States and UTs across export-related parameters in order to identify their strengths and weaknesses.
  • Four pillars: The index is based on 4 pillars i.e., Policy, Business Ecosystem, Export Ecosystem, and Export Performance. 
  • Each pillar is composed of sub-pillars (10), which in turn capture a state’s performance using relevant indicators.
  • EPI, 2022: Topped by Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Gujarat being the top-performers.

Vice-President speech: 
  • On India: India today occupies a position on the global platform that it deserved long back. “The word ‘India’ itself makes sense to one and all. Any suggestion coming from the Indian government is taken seriously by the most powerful nations.
  • On civil servants: As foot soldiers you will be brand ambassadors of the country and will have global footprint. You will be able to serve Bharat in the best of traditions.

J S Verma committee (2013) on age of consent:
  • The committee has recommended for the lowering the age of consent under the POCSO Act to 16 years.
  • Context: Bombay HC recently asked the government to reduce the age of consent.
Supreme Court on EVMs and VVPAT:
  • Subramanian Swamy v. Election Commission of India case (2013): The SC had held that “paper trail” was an indispensable requirement of free and fair elections” and directed the ECI to introduce VVPAT in EVMs.
  • The SC said that the election process should “have the fullest transparency in the system and to restore the confidence of the voters”.

  • Definition: The World Bank defines corruption as the “abuse of public office for private gain” while Transparency International (TI) views corruption as “the abuse of entrusted power for private gain.” 
Green Energy:
  • Definition: It is an energy type that is generated from natural resources, such as sunlight, wind, or water. 
  • Different from Renewable Energy:  It is actually a subset of renewable energy and includes those renewable energy resources that offer the greatest environmental benefit.

Quote on Failure and success: “Failure is the condiment that gives success its flavor” - TRUMAN CAPOTE
  • Meaning: It suggests that experiencing and learning from failure adds depth, value, and appreciation to eventual success. It emphasizes the notion that setbacks, mistakes, and challenges encountered along the way contribute to the richness and satisfaction of achieving one's goals.