Balancing horizontal imbalances between states:
  • Meaning: It refers to the efforts made by a government or relevant authorities to address economic, social, or political disparities and inequalities among different states or regions within a country. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - GST, Finance commission and tax distribution and compensation, Inequalities among States (Education, Health, per capita income etc.), Sustainable and balanced growth, Etc.
Join hands as equals: 
  • Meaning: It is a call for cooperation based on principles of fairness, mutual respect, and unity. 
  • It is often used in various contexts, including social, political, and business settings, to encourage individuals or groups to work together harmoniously and effectively while valuing each other's contributions and rights.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Equality and justice, Fraternity and brotherhood, participative governance/democracy, DPSP and FDs, Collaboration among (States, state-Centre, between nation, Global north and south) Etc.
India’s development is not pyramidal but like a plateau:
  • Meaning: It means that the development approach in India aims to avoid extreme disparities and instead seeks to promote a more uniform and equitable distribution of economic and social progress. 
  • It suggests that the goal is to ensure that development benefits reach a broader section of the population and various regions, rather than concentrating primarily at the top or in specific areas.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – India’s economic growth (As developed economy by 2017), Inclusive and sustainable growth, Inequality and equity, Social and economic equality, DPSP, etc.
Promoting green policies for green future: 
  • Meaning: It emphasizes the adoption and implementation of environmentally sustainable policies and practices to create a future that is ecologically balanced and environmentally friendly.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Government policies and regulations, Infrastructure creation, Sustainable development, Disaster management, Climate change and environmental sustainability, Etc.


Case study from China to improve India’s supply chain in global trade:
  •  India can learn much from China’s experience:
  • The promotion of export-oriented foreign direct investment (FDI) is key to participating in supply chains. 
  • Local companies need smart business strategies to join global supply chains. 
  • Caution should be exercised before India attempts to replicate China’s state interventionist template. 
  • Better targeting of multinationals in new industrial activities in which there may be a potential comparative advantage and better coordination between the central and state governments. 
  • Equally important is upstream investment in tertiary-level education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. 
Step taken by private firm to provide maternity benefits and attracting women participation in workforce:
  • Step taken by: Citibank.
  • Step taken: New policy for women employees — allowing them to avail the work-from-home option for upto 12 months after the end of their 26-week maternity leave. Additionally, they can request three months of WFH on need basis in the last trimester of their pregnancy. 
  • Benefits: Increased female participation in workforce, provide women with greater flexibility in balancing their family and career responsibilities, better healthcare of self and child, etc.


Key facts related to global supply chain:
  • The landmark India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC) has the potential to make India an Asian hub in global supply chains.
  • India’s attractiveness to foreign investors: World Trade Organisation (WTO) lists India as the fifth largest importer of intermediate goods in 2022 Q4 with a 5% share. 
  • India could in the future double its current 1.5% share of world exports of intermediate goods.
Key facts related to biofuels:
  • National Biofuel policy, 2018: It target to achieve 20% ethanol blending with petrol (E20) by 2025-26.
  • A recent study led by the University of Michigan projected that the rates of groundwater depletion could triple during 2040-81 compared with the current rate. 
  • According to the International Energy Agency, to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 globally, sustainable biofuel production needs to triple by 2030.


Prime Minister’s Speech:
  • On Education: “Education is not only the foundation upon which our civilisation has been built, but it is also the architect of humanity’s future.”
Vice President’s Speech (Shri Jagdeep Dhankhar):
  • On India’s economic growth: In just ten years where we have come; from fragile five to being the 5th largest global economy.
  • On dissent: People will have their political views, we respect the other’s point of view, we can't immediately throw others’ point of view out of the window, but then there has to be discussion, debate, dialogue and deliberation.


Commission report on teacher’s professional conduct:
  • Teacher Commission report chaired by D.P. Chattopadhyaya: It showed how far school teaching in India was from standards and ethics that one might regard as professional.
  • It advocated a well-read, thoughtful teacher who is conscious of her decisions and actions. 


Global Stocktake:  
  • Definition: The Global Stocktake is a fundamental component of the Paris Agreement which is used to monitor its implementation and evaluate the collective progress made in achieving the agreed goals. 
  • The Global Stocktake thus links implementation of nationally determined contributions (NDCs) with the overarching goals of the Paris Agreement, and has the ultimate aim of raising climate ambition.
Human cloning:
  • Definition: Cloning refers to the creation of an organism that is genetically identical to another, through asexual means. Human cloning, in particular, involves creating a genetically identical copy of a human being, either through reproductive or non-reproductive means.


Quote on Ethics: Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to do and what is right to do”. –  POTTER STEWART
  • Meaning: The quote encourages a reflective approach to ethics. 
  • It suggests that ethics involves more than just claiming one's rights; it involves thoughtful consideration of what is morally right and responsible in a given situation. 
  • Ethical decision-making often requires balancing individual rights with broader moral principles and the well-being of others.
Quote on Reason: “All our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to the understanding, and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason”. - IMMANUEL KANT
  • Meaning: The quote reflects the philosophical perspective of empiricism and rationalism. It suggests a structured approach to how humans acquire knowledge and prioritize the role of reason in the process.