14th August - AAJ KA QUALITY ENRICHMENT

Samadhaan
KEYWORDS

From rent seeking opportunities to transparent and inclusive opportunities:
  • Meaning: Rent-seeking refers to the pursuit of economic gain or profit not through productive activities, but by seeking to obtain a larger share of existing wealth or resources. The transition from rent-seeking opportunities to transparent and inclusive opportunities suggests a move away from exploitative and unfair practices towards a more just and equitable system.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to: good governance, civil services reforms (license raj to single window clearance), economic reforms, transparency and accountability etc.
Magnifying the visibility of India’s culture & diversity: 
  • Meaning: It refers to the intentional and concerted effort to showcase, highlight, and promote the rich and multifaceted aspects of India's cultural heritage, traditions, languages, arts, and the diverse communities that make up the country.
  • Usage: It can be used as– Magnifying the visibility of - culture and diversity (as soft power diplomacy), Diplomatic prowess, technological and space advancements, digital advancements, inclusiveness and environmental measures taken etc.
Colorable exercise of power:
  • Meaning: This refers to a situation where a government or authority appears to be acting within its legal powers, but in reality, its actions are intended to mask an abuse or misuse of those powers.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary, Parliament and State Legislatures, Police reforms, civil services reforms, etc.
Once-in-a-generation opportunity: 
  • Meaning: It refers to a rare occurrence, event, or phenomenon that happens only once within a specific timeframe or span of time, typically spanning several decades or even longer.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to highlight – India’s opportunity to become a developed nation, $5trillion economy, utilizing its demographic dividend, women participation and economic growth, to showcase India’s prowess in diplomacy, technological advancements, etc.

CASE STUDIES/ EXAMPLES

Example of climate change and forest fire:
  • Case: Hawaiian island (USA).
  • Impact: The recent wildfire here is the deadliest US wildfire in more than a century.
  • Causes: A long-term decline in average annual rainfall,  La Nina.
  • As temperatures increase, the clouds over Hawaii are thinner, and less cloud cover means less precipitation.

KEY FACTS

Number of undertrials and pendency of cases in judiciary:
  • According to the National Crime Records Bureau, a staggering 77% of India’s prisoners in 2021 were undertrials.
  • There is a backlog of almost 50 million cases stuck in Indian courts (including quasi-judicial forums). Two-thirds are criminal cases, concentrated in lower courts.

PM/VP/PRESIDENT SPEECHES

Vice President’s Speech: 
  • On Corruption: Corruption is the greatest enemy of the common man. Corruption deprives you of equality and opportunity. Corruption impedes our development.

JUDGEMENTS/ COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION

Committee on Electoral Reforms: 
  • Justice Tarkunde Committee (1975): It recommended that ECs be appointed on the advice of a committee comprising the Prime Minister, Lok Sabha Opposition Leader and the Chief Justice of India.
  • Dinesh Goswami Committee (1990): It suggested the need for a selection committee or a panel to appoint the CEC (at that time ECI was a single-member body).
SC Judgment on due process of law:
  • Maneka Gandhi case (1978): The Supreme Court in this case had expanded the scope of procedure established by law by ruling that such procedure has to be “fair, just and reasonable, not fanciful, oppressive or arbitrary”, thereby introducing the principle of “procedural due process”.
  • It said that Article 21 should be available not only against arbitrary executive action but also against arbitrary legislative action. 

DEFINITION

Trans-national crime :  
  • Definition: Transnational crimes are crimes that have actual or potential effect across national borders and crimes that are intrastate but offend fundamental values of the international community.
  • Examples: Human and drug trafficking, Terrorism, Organized crime etc.
Genome sequencing:
  • Definition: Genome sequencing is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome. 
  • The genome is the entire set of genetic material (DNA) that carries the instructions for building and maintaining an organism.

QUOTES

Quote on Equality: The purpose of law is to prevent the strong always having their way”. - OVID
  • Meaning: The quote emphasizes to establish a fair and just society where the strong are prevented from exploiting their advantages to the detriment of the weak. 
  • It reflects the idea that laws and regulations are established to create a level playing field, ensure fairness, and prevent the abuse of power by those who possess greater influence, resources, or authority.
Quote on Opportunity/Success: “Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work”. - Thomas Edison
  • Meaning: The quote signifies a fundamental aspect of achieving success and seizing opportunities – the recognition that valuable opportunities often require effort, dedication, and hard work, which may not always be immediately apparent.
  • In essence, this quote serves as a reminder that successful individuals are those who are willing to recognize and embrace the value of hard work, even when opportunities may not be immediately apparent or easy to pursue.
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