13th October - AAJ KA QUALITY ENRICHMENT

Samadhaan

KEYWORDS

Gateway to green future:
  • Meaning: It refers to a concept or initiative that serves as a starting point or catalyst for achieving a more environmentally sustainable and eco-friendly future. 
  • It implies that this particular initiative, project, or action is the first step toward a future where environmental conservation, renewable energy, sustainable practices, and a reduced carbon footprint are prioritized.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Climate change and environmental degradation, Mission LiFE, Carbon footprint and climate justice, Evs, Green fuels, sustainable development Etc.
Transition from veil of opacity to culture of openness: 
  • Meaning: It conveys the idea of moving from a state of secrecy, obscurity, or lack of transparency to a state of transparency, openness, and clarity. It suggests a shift in organizational or societal practices and norms.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Polity – Use of data and evidence-based policies, schemes, subsidies, Governance – good governance, RTI, Citizen charter, Ethics - Transparency and accountability, probity in governance Etc.
Feather in the cap:
  • Meaning: When someone has a "feather in their cap," it means they have something noteworthy to be proud of, like an award, recognition, a successful project, or a significant accomplishment that enhances their reputation or personal pride.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to refer - India’s moment of feather in cap (Chandrayaan 3, G20 success, Achievement in games etc.) – Also, can be used as – Youth power, Steps towards renewable enrgy, Make in India, India as a developed nation by 2027 Etc.
Taking whole chain of reforms: 
  • Meaning: It suggests a comprehensive and interconnected approach to implementing a series of reform measures or changes. It means that instead of addressing individual aspects or isolated reforms, one is considering and working on all the elements or stages of a reform process as a coherent and integrated system.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Economic reforms (labour + infra + ease of doing business etc.), Civil services reforms (Structural + generalist vs specialist), environmental actions (Individual + Country + International) Etc.

CASE STUDIES/ EXAMPLES

Use of technology in traffic management:
  • Step taken: Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has developed three indigenously developed technologies, i.e., iViS, TvITS and OSIS. They use critical technologies like AI powered thermal sensor based smart vision camera.

KEY FACTS

Global hunger index:
  • Released by:  Concern Worldwide and Welt Hunger Hilfe.
  • India’s rank:  111th out of 125 countries in the 2023 Global Hunger Index, with a score of 28.7. India ranked 107 out of 121 countries in 2022.
  • India's neighbours’: The country came after neighbouring countries Pakistan (102nd), Bangladesh (81st), Nepal (69th) and Sri Lanka (60th). However, India fared better than South Asia and Africa South of the Sahara, which recorded a score of 27 each.
  • As per the index, India also has the highest child wasting rate in the world at 18.7 percent, reflecting acute undernutrition.
Key facts related to labour force in India: As per latest periodic labour force survey for 2022-23:
  • The labour force participation rate (15 years and above) has increased from about 50% in 2017-18 to about 58% in 2022-23. 
  • While participation rates have increased in both rural and urban areas, the rise is to a much greater extent in the former. Much of this increase has been driven by females, whose participation rate in rural areas has risen.
  • The share of the self-employed has risen while the share of regular wage/salaried employed has fallen from.

PM/VP/PRESIDENT SPEECHES

Prime Minister’s speech: 
  • On India’s growth potential: This is Bharat's 'Amritkaal'. This 'Amritkaal' is the period to connect every region and every section of the country with facilities, honour and prosperity.

JUDGEMENTS/ COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION

Evolution of 50% cap on reservation:
  • In M.R. Balaji (1962): The court said maybe there has to be some limit. 
  • T. Devadasan case: It extended the limit to government jobs as well and said that it did not want to take away equality of opportunity, guaranteed under the Constitution. 
  • In N.M. Thomas case (1976): The judiciary found the 50% [ceiling] unreasoned and pushed back against it. 
  • Mandal case [Indra Sawhney]: The judiciary essentially elevated the principle [50% limit] almost to a status of a fundamental right.
  • In the EWS judgement: The Supreme Court said it may be okay with 10% for EWS, but that shouldn’t mean that it is okay to go beyond 50% for caste-based reservation.

DEFINITION

Ozone Hole:  
  • Definition: The ozone hole is defined as the area in which ozone column values amount to 220 Dobson Units (DU) or less, that has become depleted by atmospheric pollution, resulting in excess ultraviolet radiation passing through the atmosphere.  
Organised Crimes:
  • Definition: Organized crime refers to a category of criminal activities that are carried out by structured groups, often with a hierarchical structure, for the purpose of generating substantial profits through illegal means. These criminal organizations are characterized by their longevity, complexity, and ability to adapt to law enforcement efforts.

QUOTES

Quote on Woman’s bodily autonomy: No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother”. –  MARGARET SANGER
  • Meaning: The quote emphasizes women’s control over their own bodies and reproductive choices. This was due to a number of factors, including lack of access to birth control, social stigma around sex outside of marriage, and the fact that women were often seen as property of their husbands or fathers.
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